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Bond yield to maturity formula

On this page is a bond yield to maturity calculator , to automatically calculate the internal rate of return IRR earned on a certain bond. This calculator automatically assumes an investor holds to maturity, reinvests coupons, and all payments and coupons will be paid on time. The page also includes the approximate yield to maturity formula , and includes a discussion on how to find —or approach — the exact yield to maturity. For this particular problem, interestingly, we start with an estimate before building the actual answer. The formula for the approximate yield to maturity on a bond is:. We calculated the rate an investor would earn reinvesting every coupon payment at the current rate, then determining the present value of those cash flows.
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Bond Yield-to-Maturity

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Current yield vs yield to maturity

Both the current yield and yield to maturity YTM formulas are methods of calculating the yield of a bond. However, these two methods of calculation have different applications depending on the goals of the investor. When a bond is issued, the issuing entity determines its duration, face value also called its par value and the rate of interest it pays also known as its coupon rate. These characteristics remain stable over time and are not affected by any changes in the market value of the bond.
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Bond Yield to Maturity (YTM) Calculator

A bond is a fixed income instrument that represents a loan made by an investor to a borrower typically corporate or governmental. A bond could be thought of as an I. Bonds are used by companies, municipalities, states, and sovereign governments to finance projects and operations. Owners of bonds are debtholders, or creditors, of the issuer. Bond details include the end date when the principal of the loan is due to be paid to the bond owner and usually includes the terms for variable or fixed interest payments made by the borrower.
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Yield to maturity YTM is the total return anticipated on a bond if the bond is held until it matures. Yield to maturity is considered a long-term bond yield but is expressed as an annual rate. In other words, it is the internal rate of return IRR of an investment in a bond if the investor holds the bond until maturity, with all payments made as scheduled and reinvested at the same rate. Yield to maturity is similar to current yield , which divides annual cash inflows from a bond by the market price of that bond to determine how much money one would make by buying a bond and holding it for one year.
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